Would You Like Some Pepperoni with Your (Oops) Joint Employment?

Joint employment pizza 31E83EC5-E554-428A-A5D6-37F13905C3B9According to pizza.com, “There are approximately 61,269 pizzerias in the United States.” That number seems pretty precise to me, not an approximation, but who am I to question something I read on the internet?

Approximately 4 of the 61,269 pizzerias are owned by a New Yorker named Paola P., who runs each of the 4 under a different LLC. Paola’s employees can be assigned to any of the 4 pizzerias on their workdays. Seems boring so far, but stay with me. Now say this three times fast:

Paola’s practice prompted problems since Paola P’s pizzerias were impermissibly positioning personnel to prevent paying overtime. 

Pity.

Workers were being assigned to work roughly 50 hours a week, but they would work at two or three locations, less than 40 hours at each site. They received paychecks from the various LLCs (remember, each pizzeria was run as a separate company), which by itself is ok, but Paola’s mistake was that she failed to aggregate the hours from the 4 locations and failed to pay overtime when any individual exceeded 40 hours of total work.

Because the pizzerias shared ownership, management, and commingled employees, the workers were considered joint employees of the four companies. For those keeping score at home, that’s what we call “horizontal joint employment.”

Paola’s companies were liable for failure to pay overtime to each worker in any week when an employee worked more than 40 hours in the aggregate, even if no worker reached 40 hours at any individual location.

A federal court determined that the violation was flagrant and imposed the three-year statute of limitations, instead of the ordinary two-year statute.

This was a $360,000 mistake, half of which was for liquidated (double) damages.

According to our friends at Guinness, the world’s most expensive pizza can be ordered for $2,700 at Industry Kitchen in New York. This magical pie contains stilton (it’s a cheese, I had to look it up too), foie gras, caviar, truffle, and 24K gold leaves. Paola could have ordered 133 of these and still had some money left for dessert.

© 2017 Todd Lebowitz, posted on WhoIsMyEmployee.com, Exploring Issues of Independent Contractor Misclassification and Joint Employment. All rights reserved.

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

 

Are Independent Contractors Exempt from the FLSA?

hurry-FLSA-independent contractor -2119711_1920Sort of. The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) covers only employees, not independent contractors. The FLSA’s requirements on minimum wage and overtime, therefore, do not apply to independent contractors.

But wait, dear reader, don’t click away quite yet! There’s more! The real question is whether your independent contractor is really an independent contractor.

The question of Independent Contractor vs. Employee is determined under the FLSA by applying an Economic Realities Test to the facts of the relationship, not by deferring to how the parties have characterized they relationship.

The Economic Realities Test evaluates whether the worker is economically reliant on the company for which services are being provided, as opposed to in business for himself/herself.

I have written about the Economic Realities Test here, walking the reader through the various factors that courts and the DOL use to determine Who Is My Employee? under the FLSA.

The bottom line: A true independent contractor is not covered by the FLSA, but an Economic Realities analysis must be applied to determine whether a worker is truly an independent contractor.

© 2017 Todd Lebowitz, posted on WhoIsMyEmployee.com, Exploring Issues of Independent Contractor Misclassification and Joint Employment. All rights reserved.

Joint Employment Tests Are All Wrong, Says Federal Appeals Court

Fourth Circuit Adopts More Liberal Joint Employment Test Than NLRB’s Browning-Ferris Decision

IMG_1045(This article originally appeared in Corporate Counsel on March 1, 2017. Click here to view the original.)

Are 59 years of joint employment rulings all wrong? Yes, says a federal appeals court in a landmark Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) decision issued in late January.

Relying on a 1958 Department of Labor (DOL) regulation, the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals has rewritten the test for joint employment, defining the concept so expansively that every outsourced and staffing agency relationship might be deemed joint employment under the FLSA. The decision in Salinas v. Commercial Interiors, issued unanimously by a three-judge panel (all Obama appointees), takes a more radical position on joint employment than even the NLRB took in its controversial 2015 Browning-Ferris decision.

The Court of Appeals concludes that everybody – including the DOL itself – has been misinterpreting the DOL’s joint employment regulation for 59 years.

Is that possible? Can the Court literally mean that? Or is this an example of the adage, “bad facts make bad law”? The facts in Salinas suggest there was probably a joint employment relationship under any test. It remains to be seen how this test will be applied and whether decades of court decisions and DOL guidance will truly be disregarded.

Meanwhile, employers in North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia are immediately and directly impacted, since these are the states that the Fourth Circuit covers.

What Happened?

Continue reading

Why Your Standard Agreements with Staffing Agencies Are Risky Business (Starring Tom Cruise)

broken-glass-joint-employment-agreementIt’s Valentine’s Day. You and your sweetie want to get away for the weekend. Your high school offspring will stay home. They seem responsible, promise not to break the law, and promise if they break anything they will pay for it. So you’re good, right?

Come on, wake up. Have you seen Risky Business? American Pie? House Party (very underrated movie, by the way)? Continue reading

Can You Pay a Contractor Overtime? Should You?

independent-contractor-questionsLet’s talk about good old-fashioned 1099 Independent Contractors — you know, those individuals who are happy to be called contractors until they’re released and then decide they should have been treated as employees.

When retaining a contractor, one of the goals, of course, is to ensure that the contractor is properly classified and is not really (factually) an employee. A secondary goal, however, is to limit liability if the contractor is misclassified.

Today’s question sits at the intersection of these two goals. Continue reading