What to Watch for in 2023: Big Changes May Be Coming for Independent Contractor and Joint Employment Laws

If you google “what to watch for 2023,” you’ll mostly get tips on soon-to-be-released movies and streaming video shows. You’ll get grammatically impossible generic hype like “movies we can’t wait to see” (except the whole point is that you have to wait to see them) and you’ll get grammatically impossible niche hype like “The most anticipated Korean dramas and movies we can’t wait to watch in 2023.”

We won’t peddle hype in this post, and you’ll literally have to wait for all of the things addressed below. But here are five important developments to watch for in 2023.

1. The test for Independent Contractor vs. Employee is likely to change, at least under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). The Department of Labor proposed a new multi-factor test, and the period for public comment ended December 13. The DOL is likely to roll out a new test in 2023. It will replace the current core factors test described here.

2. The test for Joint Employment is likely to change, at least under the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA). In September, the NLRB proposed a new test for determining when joint employment exists under the NLRA. You can read more here. The public comment period has closed, and we can expect a new test sometime in 2023.

3. The NLRB is likely to rule that independent contractor misclassification, by itself, is an unfair labor practice. The NLRB General Counsel has expressed an intent to reverse the Velox Express decision from 2019, in which the Board ruled that misclassification was not an automatic ULP. More information is here. Now that the Board majority has switched from Republican to Democrat, expect a decision in 2023 that creates an automatic ULP when there’s a finding of worker misclassification.

4. Expect state legislatures to keep changing the tests for Independent Contractor vs. Employee. Some states will try to make it harder to maintain independent contractor status by passing ABC Tests, in either a standard or strict version. A few conservative states may go the other way and adopt the latest version of the Uniform Worker Classification Act proposed by ALEC. The law would create a safe harbor for independent contractor classification if certain requirements are followed, including having a written contract. Versions of this law have been passed in West Virginia and Louisiana. You can read more here. Expect Oklahoma to be next.

5. Expect significant rulings on California independent contractor law. Several important cases are pending. These include Olson v. State of California, which challenges the constitutionality of AB 5. Oral argument was held in the Ninth Circuit in July 2022. In another case, the California Court of Appeal is considering the legality of Prop 22, the successful ballot measure that helped to protect independent contractor status for rideshare and delivery drivers using app services. Oral argument in that case, Castellanos v. State of California, was held in December 2022.

The law regarding contingent workforce is constantly changing, and 2023 looks to be another year of significant transformation. As always, it will be a good idea to watch these new developments carefully, as they will likely have a significant impact on companies using independent contractors and other contingent workforce arrangements.

Wishing you all a happy and healthy 2023!

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© 2022 Todd Lebowitz, posted on WhoIsMyEmployee.com, Exploring Issues of Independent Contractor Misclassification and Joint Employment. All rights reserved.

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Another Thing to Worry About?: Can Individuals Be Joint Employers under the FLSA?

This gem recently popped up on my twitter feed. Causes of death in London, 1632. Seems to me that cancer would be bad enough, but 10 deaths were attributable to the deadly combination of “cancer and wolf.” Sounds to me like 17th century cancer wards needed a moat.

Other notable causes of death include “Consumption” (1797) and its equally deadly opposite, “Dead in the street and starved” (6). “King’s evil” fell 38 unappreciated subjects of the Crown, and 98 died from “Rising of the lights,” which is a fate perhaps narrowly avoided by Clark in Christmas Vacation.

There were lots of things in 1630s London that could bring a person down, but happily “joint employment” is not among the recorded causes of death. Which raises this question as we head into 2023:

Can individuals be liable as joint employers?

The answer, of course, is sometimes.

The Supreme Court of Virginia recently ruled that individuals could not be joint employers under that state’s law on unpaid wages. The decision, was based on a strict reading of a state statute, which permitted only “entities” to be joint employers. The Virginia court explained that this definition was narrower than the understood meaning of joint employer under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA).

And, indeed, the FLSA does recognize that individuals may be joint employers. This nugget from the First Circuit Court of Appeals answers that question with little room for doubt: “The overwhelming weight of authority is that a corporate officer with operational control of a corporation’s covered enterprise is an employer along with the corporation, jointly and severally liable under the FLSA for unpaid wages.” Donovan v. Agnew, 712 F.2d 1509, 1511 (1st Cir.1983).

The difference is definitional. The FLSA looks to whether one or more “persons” is the employer. Persons can be individuals or entities. The Virginia statute considered only “entities.”

Individual corporate officers can, therefore, face liability as joint employers, particularly in smaller organizations where corporate formalities might not be followed as closely as they should be. For example, in the Agnew case, the court determined that “corporate officers with a significant ownership interest who had operational control of significant aspects of the corporation’s day to day functions, including compensation of employees, and who personally made decisions to continue operations despite financial adversity during the period of non-payment” were employers under the FLSA.

The bottom line here is that, yes, individuals can — at least under some circumstances — be joint employers under the FLSA. But not necessarily under every state’s law.

So that’s one more thing that individuals need to be wary of, in addition to the king’s evil and the dreaded combination of “cancer and wolf.”

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© 2022 Todd Lebowitz, posted on WhoIsMyEmployee.com, Exploring Issues of Independent Contractor Misclassification and Joint Employment. All rights reserved.

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Rick Springfield & Joint Employment: L.A. County Liable in FLSA Overtime Suit, Despite No Control Over Payroll

Rick jams!

If I ask you to name a song by Rick Springfield, you’ll say “Jessie’s Girl.” If I ask you to name another, you’ll look at me with a blank stare. But there’s another song you probably know. I forgot all about it too until I heard it on the 80s channel last week.

“Don’t Talk to Strangers” was released in 1982 and, around May of that year, spent four weeks at #2 on the Billboard charts. (Bonus Trivia Question: Can you name the #1 song in May 1982? The answer is below.)

Springfield had a couple of other hits too. Remember “Love Somebody” and “I’ve Done Everything for You”? Good times.

Anyway, the State of California and County of Los Angeles are hardly strangers, and they not only talk, but they collaborate on social services programs. That collaboration led to a lawsuit raising joint employer questions under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA).

The State of California and the County of Los Angeles administer an In-Home Supportive Services (IHSS) program, which allows low-income elderly, blind, or disabled residents of the county to hire a provider to help them with daily living activities. The State of California runs the program at a state level, through state regulations, but the counties play a role in administering the program too.

Under a 2013 DOL regulation covering domestic workers, these workers were entitled to overtime pay under the FLSA. Until late 2015, however, the regulation was vacated while a court reviewed it. The state began paying overtime in 2016.

In this lawsuit, one of the IHSS providers filed suit against Los Angeles County, seeking FLSA overtime wages for 2015, while the rule was vacated and under review.

The county responded that the state, not the county, was the employer; and therefore the county could not be liable for the state’s failure to pay overtime in 2015. The district court agreed and ruled that the state, not the county, was the employer. The county would not be liable for the unpaid overtime. Or so it thought.

In a recent decision, however, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals reversed that conclusion. Applying the FLSA joint employer test, the Court held that the county was a joint employer, even though it did not control payroll.

Seems a little unfair, but that’s how joint employment works.

According to the Ninth Circuit, here’s the joint employer test under the FLSA: To determine whether an entity is a joint employer, the court must consider “whether the alleged employer (1) had the power to hire and fire the employees, (2) supervised and controlled employee work schedules or conditions of employment, (3) determined the rate and method of payment, and (4) maintained employment records.”

The test derives from a Ninth Circuit case called Bonette. Other circuits use slightly different tests.

Even though the state controls payroll, the Ninth Circuit ruled that the county had enough involvement, based on the four factors, to make it a joint employer. The county therefore would be jointly liable for the shortfall in overtime pay.

The case is a good reminder of the dangers of joint employment. Even if your business has no control over payroll, a joint employer is liable for the failure to pay overtime.

The idea of two different things coming together is also the answer to today’s trivia question from above: What was the #1 song on the Billboard charts in May 1982?

[scroll down for the answer]

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The #1 song in May 1982 was Ebony and Ivory.

Also, random fun facts about Rick Springfield:

  • His real name is Richard Springthorpe.
  • He was born in Guilford, New Sales Wales, Australia.
  • He played Dr. Noah Drake on General Hospital.
  • Before making it big on his own, he played in bands called Wickedy Wak and Zoot.

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© 2022 Todd Lebowitz, posted on WhoIsMyEmployee.com, Exploring Issues of Independent Contractor Misclassification and Joint Employment. All rights reserved.

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Green or Yellow: What’s the Difference Between Co-Employment and Joint Employment?

There’s an ongoing debate in my family over whether tennis balls are green or yellow. I sit firmly in the green camp and can’t see the yellow. My family thinks I am an idiot.

Turns out we’re both right. (Read into that as you wish.)

Tennis balls are officially Optic Yellow, but on the color wheel, that’s the same color as Electric Lime. There’s been some serious investigative journalism devoted to this topic, and the debate rages on. See here and here.

While Optic Yellow and Electric Lime may be the same, co-employment and joint employment are definitely not the same. Here’s today’s explainer.

In both co-employment and joint employment, there are two employers. For our purposes, the secondary employer is the one that benefits from the workers’ services. The primary employer is the one that pays them.

Co-employment is a voluntary arrangement in which one entity (often a Professional Employer Organization, or PEO) agrees to perform administrative/HR tasks for another entity, usually including providing benefits, HR services, and taking on the obligations of an employer in each jurisdiction where the workers will be.

The company that will benefit from the workers’ services selects them, determines their pay, determines their schedules, terminates them, and generally decides on all terms and conditions of employment. The company then sends them to the co-employer (PEO) to be hired and onboarded for the sole purpose of providing services to the secondary employer.

Unlike an employee leasing or staffing agency relationship, when a co-employment relations ends, the employees stay with the secondary employer. They don’t go back into a pool.

In co-employment, the employees and all parties acknowledge up front that this is a co-employment relationship, with the terms and conditions of employment dictated by the secondary employer. The offer letter and employee handbook will generally explain to the new hire the nature of the co-employment relationship.

No one worries about being deemed in a co-employment relationship because co-employment is an intentional choice. It’s not something that a court declares.

Joint employment, on the other hand, is a legal conclusion, often not a relationship that is acknowledged by the parties. The most common scenario for joint employment is when a staffing agency provides workers for staff augmentation, with the workers fully integrated into the secondary employer’s workforce and supervised by the secondary employer’s managers.

Joint employment can arise when labor services are provided by a staffing agency, a subcontractor, or a consulting firm. In a joint employment situation, there are two distinct employers. The staffing agency, subcontractor, or consulting firm is the primary employer and, if there’s not joint employment, then it’s the sole employer.

The primary employer determines wages and benefits and often selects the workers to be hired. Those workers often provide services for multiple companies, either sequentially or simultaneously.

If a secondary employer terminates a worker’s assignment, the worker stays with the primary employer. The primary employer can reassign the worker to another job site or make its own determination whether to keep the worker employed. You’ll want your staffing agency agreement to make clear that you can end a worker’s assignment but that you have no right to control the worker’s employment status with the agency.

There is a contractual relationship between the two companies that one will provide services for the other. But joint employment is not a foregone conclusion. Joint employment can exist, for example, if the secondary company makes decisions about the workers’ wages, working conditions, schedules, training, etc. To oversimplify a bit, joint employment is somewhat likely in a staffing services situation; less likely when retaining professional outside consultants.

Unlike with co-employment, joint employment does not involve a trilateral understanding among the worker and the two companies that the worker is employed by both.

Generally, the secondary company will argue that it does not control wages and working conditions, is therefore not a joint employer, and is therefore is not liable for any employment-related errors by the primary employer. The determination of whether joint employment exists is a legal determination, not based on an agreement among the parties and the worker.

What you’re worried about, therefore, is a finding of joint employment. Joint employment is not unlawful, but it creates unplanned risks and liabilities for the secondary employer. For example, if a staffing agency fails to pay its employees as required by law, the secondary employer is fully liable for the underpayment and the other legal consequences, even though it had no control over the primary employer’s payroll practices.

For more fun facts about joint employment, choose the Joint Employment category of posts in the blog. But be mindful of the date of the post. In the world of joint employment and determine when joint employment exists, the rules are always changing. So that’s fun, right?

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© 2022 Todd Lebowitz, posted on WhoIsMyEmployee.com, Exploring Issues of Independent Contractor Misclassification and Joint Employment. All rights reserved.

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Curse of the Lamprey: Company Faces Costly Negligence Suit Because It Was NOT a Joint Employer

Henry I of England, possibly playing with a toy castle

The history of the Middle Ages is filled with tales of unusual and unexpected deaths. In 1016, for example, Edmund Ironside, King of England, was allegedly stabbed while on a toilet by an assassin hiding underneath. In 1131, Crown Prince Philip of France died while riding his horse in Paris after the animal tripped over a black pig that was running out of a dung heap. In 1135, Henry I of England supposedly died after eating too many lampreys, against his physician’s advice. A lamprey, for those keeping score, is a long, jawless fish with a funnel-like sucking mouth. (“Doctor, how many of these delicious-looking sea creatures may I ingest for dinner?”)

While Henry I might have fared better had he listened to medical advice, Edmund and Philip seem to have just found themselves in the wrong place at the wrong time.

This can happen to businesses too when retaining non-employee laborers.

But the cautionary tale in today’s post is different from those I usually write about. We often discuss here how businesses can take steps to avoid being deemed a joint employer. Today’s post, however, is about an unexpected bad outcome that can arise from not being a joint employer.

The culprit here is not a dung-covered black pig or a toilet assassin. The culprit here is workers’ compensation law.

As we all know, workers’ compensation law covers employees only. When workers’ compensation law applies, it is the only course of recovery for a worker injured on the job. There’s no suing for negligence, no tort claims, and no personal injury lawsuits.

Being a joint employer, in other words, can limit your liability when a worker is injured on the job.

A recent Texas case illustrates the point.

King Aerospace is a military contractor. It often relied on another company, ATG, to find maintenance specialists. ATG would identify and hire the specialists, who would then go work for King. ATG treated the workers as its employees and reported their pay on a Form W-2.

One of the workers supplied by ATG fell off a ladder while working on a project for King. He filed a personal injury suit against King Aerospace, alleging that King was negligent in causing his injuries. King responded by arguing that it was the man’s joint employer, meaning that the injuries would subject to Texas workers’ compensation law. When workers’ compensation law applies, workers’ compensation law provides the only available remedy for a workplace injury. There’s no separate personal injury suit.

A jury was asked to determine whether the man was King’s employee at the time of the injury, and the jury said he was not. King was therefore exposed to the full range of damages available in a negligence lawsuit. Hey, watch out for that black pig.

King appealed the decision, arguing that it was a joint employer as a matter of law. The Texas Court of Appeals, however, ruled that there were issues of fact and the jury was entitled to find that there was no joint employment relationship. The case now goes back to the trial court, where King Aerospace will face tort liability under personal injury laws.

Businesses are usually looking to avoid joint employer status. But as this case shows, when there’s a serious workplace injury involved, joint employer status can actually be beneficial.

The decision does not address whether ATG had workers’ compensation coverage for the worker. Presumably it did not. The case is also a good reminder to make sure that in agreements with companies supplying labor to your business (such as staffing agencies), the supplier company should agree to provide workers’ compensation coverage.

An agreement like that between King and ATG that could have prevented King’s bad outcome here. Or King could have taken more direct steps to establish itself as the man’s joint employer, even if that move seems counter intuitive.

On the other hand, I have no idea what could have saved poor Martin of Aragon, who supposedly died in 1410 from a combination of indigestion and uncontrollable laughing. Martin apparently was suffering from indigestion after eating an entire goose when his favorite jester, Borra, entered the king’s bedroom. Martin asked Borra where he had been, and Borra replied, “Out of the next vineyard, where I saw a young deer hanging by his tail from a tree, as if someone had so punished him for stealing figs.” This joke caused the king to die from laughter.

I guess you had to be there.

For more information on unusual deaths in the Middle Ages, click here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_unusual_deaths#Middle_Ages

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© 2022 Todd Lebowitz, posted on WhoIsMyEmployee.com, Exploring Issues of Independent Contractor Misclassification and Joint Employment. All rights reserved.

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NLRB’s Proposed New Joint Employment Rule: Same But Different

[Reposting with revised link to the article, not behind paywall]

When I was 5 years old, and my sister was 3, the rule was that we had to be in our rooms by 8 p.m.

We followed that rule, but in our own way. We’d put on our pajamas, say good night and go into our rooms. But then we would lie down on the carpet at the very edge of our rooms, with our bodies still in the room and our heads in the hallway so we could talk.

In the strictest sense, we followed the rule. But we did it in our own way, to serve our own purposes. In essence, we chose to define what it means to be in our rooms.

The same sort of rulemaking is happening at the National Labor Relations Board on the subject of defining joint employment.

Click here to read the rest of this article, published 9/12/2022 in Law360.

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© 2022 Todd Lebowitz, posted on WhoIsMyEmployee.com, Exploring Issues of Independent Contractor Misclassification and Joint Employment. All rights reserved. This article originally published on Law360, 9/12/2022.

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Can Independent Contractors Sue For Disability Discrimination?

On Sunday, I visited the American History Museum in Washington, where I came across this poster. Which I love. During World War II, Americans were encouraged to save their used cooking fat, which could be repurposed for manufacturing explosives. According to the University of Illinois, one pound of fat contained enough glycerin to make nearly a pound of explosives.

And that’s how bacon (sourced from a “wonderful, magical animal”?) helped win the war.

A different kind of battle continues to be fought over independent contractors’ rights. As we’ve discussed in many contexts, independent contractors lack many of the rights that employees have. That’s one of the reasons we see so many independent contractor misclassification claims.

One of the rights independent contractors lack is the right to be protected against disability discrimination—at least under federal law. In a recent case before the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals, a nurse sued the hospital where she worked, alleging interference with her rights under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The nurse had been unable to work for several weeks after a head injury, and the hospital declined to re-credential her.

The problem for her, though, is that the hospital was not her employer, and so she didn’t have any rights under the ADA. (We can ignore the public accommodation sections of the ADA. They don’t apply here.)

The ADA allows workers to sue their employers for disability discrimination or for interference with their ADA rights. But a worker can’t sue a business that’s not the worker’s employer, even if the business takes action because of a disability.

The law has been clear for a long time that independent contractors cannot sue for disability discrimination under the ADA. This case was a bit different, though, because it dealt with the non-interference clause of the ADA, not the anti-discrimination clause. The court ruled that the same limitation applies to non-interference claims.

The plaintiff had another potential argument, and it was probably the better argument. But her lawyers never asserted it.

You see, the nurse was employed by a physicians’ group when she worked at the hospital. She first tried to sue the physicians’ group, but it went into bankruptcy, and the bankruptcy court disallowed her claim. She then sued the hospital where she performed the work. The hospital, not insignificantly, used to be her direct employer, but she had been rebadged as an employee of the physicians’ group three years earlier.

She probably should have argued that the hospital was her joint employer. But she didn’t. Because she never made the argument, the court didn’t conduct a joint employment analysis, and so we don’t know if the facts could have supported a finding of joint employment. But at least she might have had a viable argument. Maybe. But without any employment relationship, she had no argument and no chance to win. And that’s why the district court dismissed her claim and the Court of Appeals affirmed the dismissal.

There are two takeaways here.

First, independent contractors have far fewer rights than employees. Federal anti-discrimination laws protect employees, not independent contractors. Some state anti-discrimination laws protect independent contractors, but the ADA does not.

Second, when a worker is employed by a vendor or subcontractor, the real danger is joint employment. Your business can be held liable as a joint employer for misdeeds of the direct employer. The dangers of joint employment are even greater when the direct employer goes bankrupt. The whole purpose of joint employment is to make sure there is someone who can make the employee whole for any damages suffered. If your business is a joint employer, it doesn’t matter if you were primarily responsible for the wrong or not. Joint employment means both employers are fully liable for the loss.

You might be saying, hey, wait a minute. If she couldn’t work, how was that an ADA violation? We don’t know if her underlying claim had any legs or not. That’s not the point here. The point is that the court never got into the merits of the claim because it didn’t have to. The hospital had a complete defense. No employment relationship, no claim.

This case serves as a reminder of how important it is to be careful with non-employment relationships. Just like you would have been careful with your bacon grease, back in the 1940s.

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© 2022 Todd Lebowitz, posted on WhoIsMyEmployee.com, Exploring Issues of Independent Contractor Misclassification and Joint Employment. All rights reserved.

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Garbage Bird? Don’t Get Poisoned By A Double Hit of Misclassification and Joint Employment

Photo: Benjamin Freeman/Wikimedia Commons (CC BY 4.0)

The natives of Papua New Guinea call the hooded pitohui a “garbage bird,” and they don’t eat it or touch it. As Westerners learned more recently, there’s a good reason for the islanders’ hostility.

The hooded pitohui is the first bird confirmed to be poisonous. The bird‘s feathers emit batrachotoxins, which causes numbness and burning in low concentrations. A heavier does can cause paralysis, cardiac arrest and death. In other words, there’s good reason for keeping the hooded pitohui off the menu.

Numbness and burning may also describe the impact of a recent DOL enforcement action on two contractors in Louisiana. They were dealt a double hit—the DOL found independent contractor misclassification and joint employment.

After an investigation, the DOL’s Wage and Hour Division found that hundreds of painters and drywall workers had been misclassified as independent contractors. The company that retained the workers, PL Construction, failed to pay overtime and failed to maintain accurate time records, both violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA).

Adding to the pain, the DOL found that a higher tier contractor, Lanehart, was the workers’ joint employer. That meant Lanehart was jointly liable for the violations—even though it had no control over PL Construction’s pay practices.

The DOL recovered more than $240,000 in overtime back wages for 306 workers.

There are several lessons here, both for companies that retain independent contractors directly and for higher tier contractors that engage subcontractors that use ICs.

1. The DOL considers independent contractor misclassification an enforcement priority. The agency is actively looking for violations.

2. The DOL publishes its wins. That means you can expect a press release naming and shaming your company if the DOL finds that there’s a practice of misclassifying workers. Have you heard the old adage that there’s no such thing as bad publicity? It’s not true.

3. Higher tier contractors are taking a risk if they put their head in the sand and disregard misclassification by their lower tier subs—especially if they plan to direct the work of the lower tier sub’s workers.

Here, the DOL found that Lanehart, the higher tier contractor, supervised PL’s workers and maintained records of who worked when. Lanehart’s supervision and direction made it a joint employer of PL’s workers. Under the FLSA, a joint employer is fully liable for wage and hour violations, even where it had no control over how the lower tier sub paid its workers.

4. A lawsuit is not the only way misclassification claims arise. Federal and state agencies can initiate investigations too. And while arbitration agreements with class action waivers can prevent class action litigation, they can’t stop a federal agency from pursuing claims on its own.

The DOL made its position pretty clear in its press release: “Our investigation shows the costly consequences employers face when they or their subcontractors fail to comply with the law. When we determine a joint employment relationship exists, the Wage and Hour Division will hold all responsible employers accountable for the violations.”

Misclassification hurts. Joint employment doubles the pain. The DOL can inflict an uncomfortable burning sensation, even without sending a a hooded pitohui your way.

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© 2022 Todd Lebowitz, posted on WhoIsMyEmployee.com, Exploring Issues of Independent Contractor Misclassification and Joint Employment. All rights reserved.

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Smackdown, Live!: Joint Employer Test Must Consider ‘Reserved or Indirect Control,’ D.C. Circuit Rules

Picture Source: nypl.org

In 2009, the James Brown compilation album The Godfather’s Smackdown, Live! was released. It’s a two-disc compilation of live shows from 1980. I never saw James Brown live, but I did see James Brown’s Celebrity Hot Tub.

The D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals issued a different kind of smackdown, chastising the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) for ignoring the Circuit Court’s earlier directive about the joint employer test. Believe it or not, this case is another chapter in the ongoing Browning-Ferris saga.

Click here to read the rest, originally posted on the BakerHostetler Employment Law Spotlight blog.

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Todd Lebowitz, posted on WhoIsMyEmployee.com, Exploring Issues of Independent Contractor Misclassification and Joint Employment.

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Dead End for Class Certification? Ninth Circuit Provides Roadmap for Defending Independent Contractor Misclassification Class Claims

For businesses using independent contractor vendors, misclassification claims are usually well-suited for class certification. A plaintiff’s path toward certifying a class can be relatively smooth when all vendors of a particular kind are treated as contractors. The argument goes that if one is misclassified, all are misclassified.

But a new Ninth Circuit ruling may help businesses change the path toward class certification into a dead-end road.

Click here to read the rest of the post, originally published on BakerHostetler’s Employment Class Action Blog.

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© 2022 Todd Lebowitz, posted on WhoIsMyEmployee.com, Exploring Issues of Independent Contractor Misclassification and Joint Employment. All rights reserved.

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